Old age is the final period of our life, having limitations in adaptive capabilities and morphological changes in the body. Alas, at the moment this is inevitable. Despair leads to great achievements, many scientists around the world are trying to fight for an increase in the measured period. Perhaps the coveted drug is closer than we think.
JABSOM University and the pharmacological company Cardax announced the results of their recent research aimed at developing anti-aging therapies. The CDX-085 compound, in which astaxanthin, showed its ability to increase the expression of the FOXO3 gene, which plays an important role in longevity.
Transcription factors forkhead box O (FOXO) belong to the protein family, which consists of several variants in mammals: FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4 and FOXO6. They are involved in numerous cellular processes. FOXO-proteins of mammals are homologous to the transcription factor DAF-16 of the cenorabdite nematode and dFOXO of the Fruit Drosophila.
The activity of FOXO proteins is regulated by insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) through the activation of the intracellular PI3K / AKT signaling pathway. The similarity of the factors of nematodes, fruit flies and mammals has led to a hypothesis about the effect on life expectancy in higher eukaryotes.
This protein family is insanely interesting, but we now need FOXO3. This protein functions as a trigger for apoptosis, by enhancing the regulation of genes necessary for cell death, such as BCL2L11 and P53, or suppression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as BIRC. Also, FOXO3 is involved in protecting against oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidants such as catalase and SOD2. One can not help but mention participation in oncogenesis, for example, the translocation of this gene with the MLL gene is associated with secondary acute leukemias. A decrease in FOXO3 activity in cancer was observed due to an increase in Akt activity as a result of loss of the PTEN tumor suppressor localized on the 10th chromosome.
The occurrence of a certain variation of FOXO3 was recorded in the majority of long-livers, whose age exceeded the 95-year boundary, it is interesting that the older the group of subjects was, the more often the gene flashed in the results. But the main reason for this interest was the confirmation of his relationship with the aging processes in nematodes and fruit flies.
All people have FOXO3, but only one in three carries a certain version of the gene, which is associated with longevity. When the gene is activated, it can be made to act as a version of "longevity."
During the study, mice were given either normal nutrition or food containing a high dose of CDX-085. In animals fed large amounts of CDX-085, an increase in the activation of the FOXO3 gene, namely, longevity, was recorded, by 90% in cardiac tissue. After tests on other tissues, scientists plan to conduct clinical trials in humans.
Let's talk about the drug itself, its main component is astaxanthin - a carotenoid with two additional oxygen molecules. These groups increase antioxidant properties and give unique features. Possessing the ability to stabilize cells and play the role of rivets between membranes, it is found in seafood such as shrimp, lobsters, salmon, algae, and also found in Phaffia rhodozyma.
Its main application - industrial - tinting fish, but more recently, the market has a huge variety of dietary supplements with it.
Studies in animals have shown that it reduces the number of inflammatory processes, liver damage and cholesterol.
So why are scientists so clinging to FOXO3? Researchers from the National Institutes of Health and the Cuacini Medical Center found that for people who have a specific gene (FOXO3 "longevity"), there is "additional protection". People with this gene are distinguished by an impressive reduction in the risk of mortality with age. The data is based on a 17-year study of 3,584 older American male Japanese and 17-year-old study 1595 white and 1056 African-American elderly from the ABC cohort.
In 2014, the already famous university "JABSOM" published an interesting study of the correlation of growth and FOXO3 gene, which was the basis for the development of therapy.
The researches are attached below.